Refuge and Asylum - a background
Refugees, asylum seekers & migrants
“A person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.”
The 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
A person who has left their country of origin and formally applied for refugee status in another country but whose application has not yet been concluded.
A person who has left their country of origin to live in another country, either permanently or temporarily. Individuals may travel for a range of reasons, such as work, family and economic/environmental factors.
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
Someone who has been forced to flee his or her home but has not crossed an international border. Even if they have fled for similar reasons as refugees, IDPs legally remain under the protection of their own government – even though that government might be the cause of their flight.
Refused Asylum Seeker
A refused asylum seeker is a person whose asylum application has been unsuccessful and who has no other claim for protection awaiting a decision. Some refused asylum seekers voluntarily return home, others are forcibly returned and for some it is not safe or practical for them to return until conditions in their country change.
A child who is outside of their country of origin, seeking refugee status without parents, relatives or a legal guardian.
Refugees in the world today
By the end of 2020, the UNHCR (the UN refugee agency) had registered 82.4 million individuals who were forcibly displaced worldwide as a result of persecution, conflict, generalised violence, or human rights violations. Of these, some 20.7 million people were refugees, 48 million internally displaced persons, and 4.1 million asylum seekers. 3.9 million people were also included under a category introduced in 2019, ‘Venezuelan’s displaced abroad’.
In 2020, over two-thirds of refugees and Venezuelans displaced abroad worldwide come from just five countries: Syria, Venezuela, Afghanistan, South Sudan and Myanmar.
Years of ongoing, destructive civil war have left Syria as the world’s largest refugee producing country. In 2020, there were 6.7 million Syrian refugees globally, with the majority living in surrounding countries. More than 3.7 million Syrians live in neighbouring Turkey, host to the largest number of refugees in the world since 2014. Over 850,000 Syrian refugees also live in Lebanon, where they make up around an eighth of the population.
By the end of 2020, 5.4 million Venezuelans had left their country, the largest exodus in the region’s recent history. Escaping violence, insecurity and a lack of food, medicine and essential services, the vast majority have travelled to other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Neighbouring Colombia alone is now hosting 1.7 million displaced Venezuelans.
Continuous conflict spanning the last forty years has left around 2.6 million Afghans living outside the country. More than 1.4 million Afghan refugees reside in neighbouring Pakistan, which hosts the third largest number of refugees worldwide.
Conflict in South Sudan broke out in 2013. The ongoing civil war has created a refugee population of over 2.2 million, with the majority living in neighbouring countries, including Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The persecuted Muslim minority Rohingya have fled violence in Myanmar since the 1990s. The latest wave of displacement began in 2017 when violence emerged in Myanmar’s Rakhine State, and there are now 1.1 million refugees from the country. The vast majority of these people are hosted by Bangladesh, where 52% of stateless Rohingya refugees are children.
Britain and refugees
In 2020, the UK received 29,456 asylum applications, an 18% decrease from the previous year. While overall annual asylum applications across the EU also fell in 2020, applications in the UK were still far behind many of its European neighbours. Germany (102,500) and Spain’s (86,400) asylum applications collectively accounted for almost half of all first-time asylum applications made in the EU27 in 2020 (45.3%). France (81,800) and Greece (37,900) both also received more first-time asylum applications than the UK did in 2020.
A total 416,600 first time applications were received across the EU27 in 2020, a 34% decrease from 2019. The UK received around 6 asylum applications per 10,000 people in 2020. This ranked the UK 14th when compared with EU27 countries in terms of asylum applications per-head of population.
The UK also runs refugee resettlement schemes, which grant refugee status or other forms of humanitarian protection to people living abroad. These people are then brought to the UK. The UK currently runs four resettlement schemes, which brought 426 adult and 397 child refugees to the UK in 2020 (a total decrease of 85% from the previous year).
A new ‘Global Resettlement Scheme’, which will replace the existing ‘vulnerable persons resettlement scheme’ (VPRS) and ‘vulnerable children resettlement scheme’ (VCRS) is due to be launched in 2020. The new scheme will aim to bring 5,000 refugees to the UK in its first year.
In response to the developing situation in Afghanistan in 2021, the UK announced two additional, new resettlement schemes.
The first, the Afghan Relocations and Assistance Policy, was launched in April 2021, and is open to all staff who were employed by the British government in Afghanistan from 2001, and are deemed to be at serious risk of threat to life. There are no restrictions on the length of time served, rank or employment status.
The second, the Afghan Citizens Resettlement Scheme, will see 5,000 people welcomed in its first year, and up to 20,000 over the coming years.
 See: ‘Immigration statistics data tables, year ending December 2020 – Tab Res_01’ for a full breakdown
Asylum in the UK
Claiming asylum in the UK is a long and complicated process. Click here to read about what happens when you submit an asylum claim. Visit the Refugee Council’s website for regularly updated information on changes made to the UK asylum system during the Coronavirus pandemic.
In the year ending December 2020, 40% of initial asylum decisions in the UK were grants of asylum, with a further six percent positive judgements offering other forms of protection, a slight reduction from the previous year (overall 52%).
In the same period, 54 percent of overall decisions made were refusals (up from 48% in 2019, but a fall from 65% in 2018). Many asylum seekers who are refused protection by the Home Office go on to appeal the decision in the courts. Between 2012 and 2016, 40 percent of refusals taken to appeal were overturned (rising to 44% in the year ending December 2020).
Asylum seekers have extremely limited employment rights in the UK. If their asylum claim has not been concluded after twelve months, they are able to apply for jobs on the Occupation Shortage List. The specific nature of jobs on this list excludes the vast majority of asylum seekers from any form of work.
Unable to work, asylum seekers, regardless of age, receive £5.66 per-day in support. This must cover food, toiletries, clothing, transport and other necessities. This support has only increased by £2.68 a week since 2011, and is lower than the rate provided fifteen years ago. Housing is provided for through privately rented accommodation on a no-choice basis, often using properties that the councils do not want.
Asylum seekers who have been refused asylum but have not or are unable to be returned to their country of origin do not receive monetary support. They receive temporary accommodation, also on a no-choice basis, and a payment card with £39.63 a week (for single asylum seekers).
Asylum seekers and refused asylum seekers routinely face detention in immigration removal centres. An individual need not have committed a crime to be imprisoned and there is no time limit for how long an individual may be detained. Read more about detention here.
 ‘How many people do we grant asylum or protection to? – Table ‘Asy_02a’
 Table ‘Asy_05’
In the year ending December 2020, over 2,200 unaccompanied refugee children applied for asylum in the UK, constituting almost 80% of all applications from under-18s. In 2020, 13,600 children and young people under-18 lodged asylum applications across the EU27. In the past decade, the number in the UK has ranged between 1,000 and over 3,500. Unaccompanied minors may be age assessed by the Home Office or the local authority on arrival to determine their age. An imprecise process, age assessments can and do result in children being treated as adults, leading to placements in shared adult accommodation or detention centres and leaving children at risk of abuse.
Once they turn eighteen, unaccompanied minors still face a number of challenges. Most commonly only offered short-term protection, at eighteen they must reapply for asylum. The 2016 Immigration Act has also removed much of the vital support unaccompanied minors receive. Once eighteen, many will no longer be able to remain in foster care and will be unable to access accommodation, further education or legal advice.
Many of those who have their case refused are then returned to countries they no longer identify with, lacking the support structures necessary to help them build a new life. After Return is a report by the Refugee Support Network documenting the experiences of young people forcibly removed to Afghanistan.
 Table ‘Asy_01a’
What can I do to support refugees and asylum seekers?
JCORE’s Unaccompanied Minors Project (JUMP) is a befriending project supporting unaccompanied young refugees in London. We match these young people with a trained volunteer befriender. Together they build a non-judgemental, non-directive friendship.
JCORE Support sees us work with partner organisations who provide direct support to destitute asylum seekers in London. We organise and run collections of necessity items that these organisations distribute. If you're able to organise a collection, email email@example.com.